Urban Agriculture and Climate Change:
“The New Normal”

Join Instructor Mason Trappio to gain an understanding of how climate change affects the urban farmer and the growth of new crops. This course informs the urban and peri-urban farmer about how climate change affects them and provides strategies for how to successfully adapt.

Our growing environments are affected, to varing degrees, by climate change. Increased temperatures, greenhouse emissions, and insect populations all challenge our farming operations. In this course, you will gain an understanding of how climate change affects the urban farmer, and new crops to grow in this New Normal.

Credentials Earned: This a noncredit stand-alone course.

What You Will Learn:

– How climate change can impact farming operations

– How to use cover crops to mitigate climate change

– How to use climate-smart crops in the face of climate change

Link to the slides.

Asante Sana ߊߛߊ߲ߕߌ ߛߣߊ
edase Paa   ߡߍߘߊߛߋ ߔߊ
Modupe O
ߡߏߘߎߔߋ ߏ

Thank you for listening to


Transcript (automated)

All right, so let’s begin. Objectives, you will gain an understanding of the myriad effects climate change is having on the urban and semi urban farmer. Will learn some suggested solutions to the potentially negative effects of climate change, and Will share some tested varieties of common crops capable of handling the changing climate.

The future ain’t what it used to be is a the title of a very popular song from 1977 with very somber lyrics could also be the title for Climate Change scenario that we are facing today. The changes that we are expected to see or hear the last decade was the hottest on record, thanks to global warming. According to expert experts at the National Oceanic administration, Atmospheric Administration, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

At the University of the District of Columbia, a land grant university, our primary focus is on addressing the very critical questions related to urban agriculture. If you set aside the jokes about it, one thing is for sure, Mother Nature always bats last. Her batting average is very good these days. My personal identification and interaction with the change in climate occurred in the 90s. While running a very small certified organic farm in Jessup, Maryland. I noticed that the early spring rains were extremely excessive. scientists agree that the earth is getting warmer every year is warmer than the previous year. Also, if you are very in tune farmer, you have probably noticed that the frost free seed growing season is getting a little longer.

Therefore, we suggest the two of the most important tools in the urban and Peri urban farmers arsenal are imagination and practicing the art of being flexible. Which means that you must be ready to change. Farmers must be prepared to change crop varieties, crop planting dates and irrigation schedules.

And we must be ready to learn immersing ourselves more in the pest and disease management and whatever other factors may affect urban agriculture. As the planet warms, we have some suggested areas that growers need to look at solutions for these and how to implement adaptation for successful crop production. In this era of climate instability.

We are entering the era of bigger and more prolific weeds. The four major green greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and water vapor. Carbon dioxide is the one that probably affects urban growers the most. The reason is that carbon dioxide is essential to plant growth. As atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, plant growth is also expected to increase in some cases that might mean higher crop yields. But it also could mean higher lead populations. Some of the let me know how I’m going to do that.

Linda Yannone 13:34
It could mean greater compost to greater access to compost, that’s a positive.

MO 13:40
Absolutely. So some of the urban effects, weed ecology and weed science are related and are very interesting courses at the university level. When I was a student some years ago, I could not wait to enroll in a weed science course, to my dismay, the course did not offer any strategies for ecological weed management. When I asked my professor about that, he rolled his eyes and said, Sorry, sir, you are in the wrong class for that and continued to teach the conventional toxic cocktail weed prevention and management methods. At that point, I realized that I had to, I quickly had to learn both methods of weed management, chemical and non toxic. It is now documented that urban centers have higher temperatures and higher carbon dioxide levels in the summer than suburban areas do. Perhaps some growers do not have weed problems in their plots, but I’m sure many do. If you ever if you ever have an opportunity to take a short vacation from your garden plot, you will experience what happens when you are not there to perform weed management in a timely manner. How much damage can a weed cause in some cases you can have 100% crop loss. That is especially true for crops where the plant canopy architecture does not shade the soil from light which causes constant germination of small weeds seeds on the surface of the soil. Carbon dioxide is food for your plants and weeds.

Weeds are opportunists and are widely adaptable to a range of environmental conditions. And as weather becomes more irrational and extreme, as seasonal fluctuations become more evident, as temperatures rise and rain changes, weeds with their high genetic variation and plasticity, are likely to be the ecological winners.

Weeds are like super athletes. They are highly competitive and have an excellent work ethic which you cannot match. Some scientists proclaim that weeds will be at a disadvantage as carbon dioxide reduces crop and weed competition due to some various specific plant physiological traits. Another frustrating factor, especially early in the season, where we control is important is that you cannot always distinguish between the crop and the weed because they look alike. This is especially true when you direct seed crops into the soil.

Sometimes they can look the same as they emerge from the soil. Later in the growing season. After the weed has had a chance to compete for light nutrients or water, growers may realize that they have been nurturing an imposter in their garden, it is sometimes too late to save the crop without a huge amount of weeding. Thus, one of the best management strategies you can employ as an urban grower his use of summer and fall cover crops here are the six best and easiest ones to use in our region Mid Atlantic to help address this issue, I just wanted to make a slight emphasis of this point number two earlier we were talking about brassicas there especially some like that can be kind of difficult. Now it’s not so much of the case. But early in the spring when wild, wild canola rape, whatever you want to call it starts coming up or with garlic mustard, those can look exactly like what we want to grow. And so those are the that’s some of the things that we’re talking about.

Yes, absolutely. The Absolutely. Absolutely case and especially um you know, I think one of my master gardener class one of the one of the teachers was talking about pine fines, sorry, just for you know, for listeners sake in the future,

user asked “Are mulch, mulch or straw good alternatives for weed management. Some people just use a tarp to overwinter.” Yes. So yes, absolutely anything that is going to basically keep the soil covered is exactly what you want to do. And we’ll go into that in our very next slide.

Mother Nature does not like our soil to be uncovered, and neither should urban farmers. One of the practices that we see least the least often in urban food plots is the use of cover crops. That should not be the case, cover crops can be used to mitigate and adapt to climate change. More studies are coming out on the benefits of using cover crops to address climate change. The ancient practice of cover cropping is extremely critical in nutrient management, the restoration of nitrogen and returning other nutrients into the soil. So using a tarp to overwinter is good. But what you don’t do is necessarily keep that soil alive with something growing, or something decomposing, that tarp will just sort of insulate that and keep that warm. If you were going to do something like that to overwinter I would suggest building a hoop house. instead. If you’re still going to involve that climate that way you can have something growing throughout the entirety of the winter.

So we have some more benefits to cover cropping. Returning these cover crops back into the soil also puts carbon dioxide back into the soil. That process is called carbon sequestration, and addresses global climate change. The use of cover crops or green manures as they were once called, is like in ground composting. Those crops shade out heavy weeds. Loosen heavy soil and prevent soil compaction by heavy rain or snow and also prevent soil erosion. Cover cropping is perhaps one of the easiest and most beneficial things that you can do for your soil. I just want to check and see okay, no additional people. All right. Let me just get a little bit coffee here.

Cover Crop selections. There are many cover or there are many crops to choose from. Depending on your location. There are nitrogen fixing and non nitrogen fixing cover crops. The nitrogen fixing cover crops are also known as legumes have the unique ability to extract nitrogen from the air or atmosphere and transfer it to their roots for later use by plants and microbes.

Because I’ve done this in every class, I’m just going to do it here. Because right now, well, I’m just going to do it here. The way that I’ve been describing this, for people who don’t know or are not familiar, is that the way that the way that this nitrogen fixing occurs is that there are symbiotic bacteria that live on nodules of the roots of these plants. They hang out in these sort of little knuckle areas, like if my fingers were to be roots. And so what they do is they live symbiotically from what I understand plant the plants exchange calcium and other nutrients with the with the with those bacteria like rhizobia and then the the nitrogen or those bacteria store nitrogen within those nodules. Later, as I’ll talk about when you disrupt the ecology, meaning kill the plants, then those bacteria also die and then that nitrogen is released into the soil. So that’s how we fixing nitrogen into the soil.

So depending on the location, we have many cover crops to choose from. There are cool season and warm season cover crops. cool season cover crops are the ones that you plant in the fall and don’t touch again until the following spring. That includes excuse me, oats, cereal, rye, crimson clover, and field peas are the best ones for the Mid Atlantic region. warm season cover crops include buckwheat, cowpeas, sorghum, Sudangrass hybrids and yellow sweet blossom clover, we’re going to examine all of those in detail.

So cool season cover crops, oats, here we go. We they plant them in the fall or in the fall after that cash crop harvest, and they’ll winter kill the after they die because of the temperatures. These residues here once they just fall over well outcompete the winter weeds, and then when the temperatures heat up, the soil heats up again. The residues decomposing in the spring will suppress weed germination for a few weeks, meaning that you can plant directly into those in those few weeks of suppressed weed germination. And these have a great soil tolerances.

I’ve told previous classes that you can go see, well, this was last summer. So I you know, there is a hotel and on the waterfront downtown in southwest that has oats as a sort of ornamental crop. You know, I was I was driving by and I was like, Whoa, you know, what’s that I didn’t recognize that. Most people only recognize oats, as you know, through the logo or of the Quaker Oats guy. But you know, they’re actually planted, they look like this and those those are rolled oats. But you can go and see him real life down there. And that I’ve been saying is a example of the great soil tolerance because Southwest doesn’t have really good soil like that Southwest DC.

All right. Next, cereal rye. Here’s a picture of the cereal rye. So cereal rye will scavenge nutrients after the cash crop. They’ll suppress weed germination after reincorporation into the soil, their deep fibrous roots work to alleviate compacted soils, and they can be planted later in the year. These say I think, let’s say that these are about four feet tall. With some of these plants, it’s generally like a one to one relationship in terms of how how these the potential for their roots to grow down. So as it’s growing up that tall, it’s also growing down that deep. And so that’s what we’re talking about alleviating compacted soils in that way. Then as soon as the roots grow down into the soil, especially into those clay layers, they’ll they’ll you and then you sort of reincorporate them and you you know mom down or something like that those roots will die, but the space that they left will become a vacuum. Because Mother Nature abhors a vacuum, what will happen is that, you know, worms might come in eat them or other bacteria might will bacteria, other microbial life will come and decompose and digest those roots or the weeds will just dry up and then I’ll leave a cavern all the way or tunnel rather, all the way from the surface of the of the soil all the way down to wherever they go. And as that happens, water comes down, other nutrients will come down and we’ll start building soil below.

Alright, so as we talked about before with user here, we got crimson clover. It’s not quite the cool season yet, so you might want to wait like we talked about earlier until the temperature Stop hitting the 90s But crimson clover here very pretty fixes nitrogen in the soil, lowers soil surface temperatures, because it’s covering, and because of the thick mulch that it will produce these beautiful flowers not only attract us, but pollinators and beneficial insects. And because of the thick mulch and biomass, it will build soil as it decomposes, the roots will increase the ability for the soil to tolerate erosion, and it’ll improve the water infiltration. Like I said before, with the roots, giving all these channels for water to go in.

With what I’ve been reading, and what I’ve been learning recently, as I’ve told previous classes is that this is probably about the right time to cut down the crimson clover. If it was like this in the in the springtime, that would be the best time mow it down, take your spade and put it work it into the soil. Because at that point in time, then where we see like this is about, I mean, it’s getting there. But rough, like we can say maybe in a couple of days or so once this flower stalk is looking to be about 50% in bloom, that’s where you want to, that’s when you would want to mow everything down, because that’s when the nitrogen concentrations are the highest within the nodules of those bacteria. And so once you do that, then those bacteria will die in the maximum amount of nitrogen will be released into the soil. Now all of us are learning here, and we’re not commodity growing. But that may be important to market gardeners, market farmers who are trying to get the most efficacy out of our most productivity out of their plots.

So we don’t want to, we don’t want to pull it out, because that will disrupt the entire nitrogen fixing process. So user asked “crimson clover roots are very shallow clover can be pulled out or should it?” and so I would say no, because you want, that’s all of where the roots are is where the nitrogen that has been fixed is. So what you want to do is just mow it, and then mow it and then mow it. And after a couple of Mows down, the the roots will be exhausted, the plant will be exhausted and it won’t come back. But you don’t want to pull it up. Unless you– don’t want to pull it up. Even, I wouldn’t I wouldn’t recommend it. If you if you if you didn’t want to pull it up, I would just move it to somewhere else, like a garden path or something like that. Because something like that you don’t want to get rid of because of all the different benefits that that the clover can have.

Linda Yannone 27:42

MO 27:45
Well, if you i would i would plant into it. So she asked, or the user asked, “Can you plant into it? I would plant into clover, after you mowed it.” You wouldn’t want to plant into it at this point in time. Okay, yeah. So yeah, I mean, just like just like I talked about with with, with cutting it down and stuff like that. I mean, transplanting just as moving is as traumatic as it is for, for us, you know, moving is one of the most stressful things that we can do. It’s even more for plants because they’re not a mobile species. Or even Kingdom right, I think or domain Yeah, I you know, sorry, that’s, that’s a little bit maybe a little bit too to classical science.

So another cool season cover crop here, our field peas, another legume nitrogen fixing they’re quickly available source of nitrogen after incorporation into the soil after full bloom like I was talking about before, this very dense picture shows perfectly the large amount of biomass that they have, they’re very moisture efficient, which is good because you don’t want to be using all this water all the time. And they have a long blooming period for pollinators, and all these things, all these nitrogen fixing crops you want to take you want to take them down, like after they bloom. But you know, if you start seeing seed pods like that, take them up because you know you it’s not that you don’t want to grow them but you can also grow your own cover crops, everything will adapt to your soils and stuff like that. But you want to take them down before before they start really producing seeds like that.

Alright, so warm season cover crops. buckwheat here, it’s quick growth can suppress weeds. It’s got a very long flowering period, after three weeks of growth, and then will bloom more for another 10 more weeks, which is the entire summer. It will sequester phosphorus and make it more available for the next crop and has very low moisture usage. I previously stated,

Oh, she user asked “I have peas self-germinating under woodchips. Is it worth moving them?” I mean, I don’t know that’s, that’s up to you. I mean, like, like we, like we talked about before you can just you can just cut them down. And if you want to just cut them snip them right at the where they are emerging from the woodchips. You know it? I guess I don’t know why you’re asking is it worth moving them? That that probably is a better question to ask.

What I’ve told people before, is that with the Yeah, absolutely. buckwheat attracts bees. That’s what yeah, I should have. That’s exactly what we’re talking about here with this long flowering period. That the that all sorts of beneficial things will come, whether it’s honeybees, native bees, and then other other like beneficial bugs like ladybugs and stuff like that. And especially my favorite, which are predatory insects, like parasitoid wasps and stuff like that will come and feed on the nectar before they start feeding on something like a tomato hornworm.

Oh my gosh. All right, so warm, another warm season cover crop here we have cowpeas, another legume excellent sources of fall nitrogen when summer planted, like we talked about, you cut them down and then you have that nitrogen available to you in the fall. If you want to plant something like like those brassicas in and they need a quick boost, the extra floral nectaries that they have will attract beneficial insects meaning they have even more nectar than most flowers do. And they thrive in high heat. This soil around here in this corner here looks pretty dry. And I would attribute that to some of that heat. And if I am correct, then this explosive growth is because of that. And they and despite that they use a low soil moisture usage in comparison to two other other cover crops which is exactly what you need in the summertime in the warm season.

And then user if you have if you’ve been having or having having had luck in the past with transplanting peas, then go for it, dig them out, and then you know and put them where you want them to go.

All right, so another warm season cover crop, Sorghum-Sudangrass hybrids, sorghum Sudan grass has allelopathic nematodes, Seidel, and herbicide ill effects. The deep root system penetrates and breaks up compacted soils, they build soil by buildings by increasing soil biomass. And they have a wide pH, a pH range for the soil. Just to just to sort of explain, I’ll get to the questions that that user and the things that Sharon and user have talked about just a little bit allelopathy can be a little bit of a kind of complicated topic.

So this means like, killing of the other or something like that. And what what, what Sorghum-Sudangrass hybrids do is that they secrete compounds in the soil that prevent germination of other plants. So around Sorghum Sudangrass, you’re likely only really going to see Sorghum-Sudangrass thriving, because they are long they they sort of make it toxic for other plants to grow. Same thing with the nematodicidal compounds, they make it toxic for the nematodes to be there. And then like I said before, with preventing the germination, they can be also considered herbicidal, especially when these things are incorporated into the soil.

They do a lot of that once the once the plant has been killed, then they have these compounds within their within the plants body. And then they they will sort of exude that into the soil after they were to die. I’m not sure if the Sorghum Sudangrass is something that you want to eat. It may be edible, but I’m not sure if it’s going to be delectable. I think I don’t I don’t know exactly what the natural process was in in creating this Sorghum Sudangrass hybrid. Um, but you could probably eat it, but I don’t think Yeah, I don’t think that it would be as delicious as consuming Sorghum. like regular Sorghum though. It might be like, like, trying to eat dent corn as sweet corn. You know, it’s like it’s not going to be the same or trying to eat popping corn as sweet corn. It’s it’s corn. But it’s not the same corn.

Linda Yannone 35:03
I think I have a book on African grains and it’s in there, you know, something to look into.

MO 35:13
Yeah, absolutely. I had a I had a book that I had learned about a lot of the, the different ones like Tef and yes, Tef and Fonio and and different things like that and I mean, really? It depends on the Edit there edibility depends on how good of a cook you are.

Unknown Speaker 35:34
And how much rinsing you want to do and preparation

MO 35:38
Yeah, absolutely. Absolutely. So, Sharon asked, “I tried growing sorghum Sudan grass one year, but it didn’t grow much about one foot but not taller. Was the soil depleted of something for its growth?” Quite possibly, you know, in other classes, I didn’t say it last time, but like, in other classes, I’ve talked about the necessity for soil testing. It could be the case that the soil may have been just too tough. I mean, like these these plants. Alright, so you know, right.

Currently, I’m in Charlotte, North Carolina, and we were walking through the walking through one of these parks, Crowder’s mountain, the amount of topsoil that was present on that mountain where it near the path was ridiculous, it was maybe like an eighth of an inch before it was some serious clay underneath. And, you know, it’s it was kind of crazy, because there’s a lot a lot of pines, cedars, are not cedars, but a lot of like hemlocks and stuff like that. And those things can make it work. But there wasn’t a lot of undergrowth, there are a lot of mushrooms, and a lot a lot of a lot of a lot of decomposition. But what I’m saying is, is that it could be where wherever you planted it that that the soil may be a little bit tougher than you thought. Initially. So I mean, like I said, possibly it is not, I mean, is a very plausible thing. It’s kind of hard to say whether or not without sort of having seen the plant or doing this sort of for like a soil forensics. And just sort of knowing what what your what your what your garden was like.

before user I didn’t address this user said “with all the rain, we’re seeing mushrooms sprouting in the lawns and the woodchips should we remove them or let them be?” I say keep them because you know i’m i’m of a very particular school of, you know, natural, regenerative agricultural thought, as the mushrooms are breaking down the things in the soil, they are freeing nutrients and making them bioavailable in the soil. That is my particular opinion not maybe not of I’m not saying that UDC is saying that I’m saying Mason Trappio as an individual entity is saying that.

I’ve been seeing a lot of those fairy rings of various amanitas and seeing a lot of those things is very awesome to see I really like it. I would just say don’t eat them, you know. And I’ll speak on behalf of the university also do not eat any random mushrooms that are growing in your soils. But I would keep them because what it’s showing you is that the soil is very much alive.

All right, warm season cover crops yellow sweet blossom clover. Yellow sweet blossom clover has an excellent nitrogen fixation ability. It is a deep root system up to five feet in some cases, and it produces a large amount of biomass, which is good for producing that thick mulch that we talked about earlier. And it attracts pollinators, and beneficial insects just like this choice picture here of this honeybee. keep clicking on the wrong thing.

So we have some climate change growing tips. Here are some growing tips which can help the urban growers better address problems associated with climate change. We first we want to match our cover crop to the season and to the climate. Knowing your USDA zones will be imperative to this. We want to grow legumes to increase soil nitrogen levels. You also need to inoculate those legumes. You can either do this by Oh my gosh. oh nevermind.

You can do this by having pre inoculated seeds. Or you can buy inoculant. Mist seeds with water and you can sprinkle the inoculant powder let me know That needs to be clarified. Well, I’ll just clarify just in case because I’ll be sending this out later. So the inoculant is the bacteria, right? And you need that, so that you can have the nitrogen fixation, fixing ability of the cover crops. Because like I said before, it’s not that clover fixes nitrogen, but is the bacteria that lives on the clover and in some aspects within the clover that fixes the nitrogen.

Every now and then you might be able to find clover as I did in the past that already has the rhizobium or the other nitrogen fixing bacteria present in the soil. And something like that is sort of pre inoculated. So you could dig those up and transfer them and and they would grow but what you want to be able to do to be as efficient as possible, you want to be able to buy pre inoculated seeds that already are coated with with the bacteria or like we said before, by the inoculant spread the seeds out. Mist seeds with water, you know, get them get them a little bit wet, and then you can sprinkle inoculant powder in them get them evenly coated, so that when they grow the seed head pops as they pop through the bacteria coats the the the roots, and as they grow, everybody grows.

So the last tip is that we want to cut the cover crops down into very small pieces, to the most important valuable tools that are used to manage cover crops are flat edged garden spade, and a battery operated hedge trimmer Oh, somebody is here.My bad. and a battery operated hedge trimmer. These small pieces break down quicker. So before you know you went you want to be able to work these things into the soil. Not necessarily till that’s not my I wouldn’t recommend anybody tilling.

Welcome Abidisamad, let me know if I’m pronouncing that absolutely incorrectly and let me know how to pronounce your name. Welcome to class, and I’m excited to have you. But I’m Thank you so much. Thank you so much. So much. Yeah.

Okay, so you just arrived just in time for the the summary of what we just talked about? I’ve had to turn it over to terminate it. How low? Oh, sorry, I’ve cut down right grass. Oh, I just got to notice that my internet connection was unstable.

“Okay, I’ve cut down ryegrass it will grow back, I’ve had to turn it over to terminate it, how low should it be cut down? That’s a very interesting question. And like I would, I would say that it would be the same as, as the like something like like the clover, where you may have to mow it twice, or mow it even lower, you need to make sure that you’re cutting below where the meristem is. Maybe in the past, when you when you’ve cut it, the meris, you cut slightly above the marriage stem. And so it was just like cool, it was just like growing hair, you know, where the plant was, you know, say, say the meristem is that my elbow and you cut it off here at the forearm, then it’s just going to grow back from the elbow. But you may have to cut, you may have to mow it down a little bit further than you thought. So that may be one thing. But I also know that in a commodity agriculture capacity, what they do with rye grass is that they they run it over with this thing called a roller crimper. And so it’s like a steamroller, but it has blades on the end of it. And so as at what happens is that the the the the tractor will run through the through the plot, and that the the roller crimper will turn them over and then chop up the chop or crimp the stalk at various places. And so it is injuring the planet at the same time as it’s knocking it over. And that way it would like just completely exhaust the plan. The plants need like sugar reserves and everything like that, to sort of kill the plant and habit decomposed as quickly as possible.

So in summary, we have carbon dioxide gases are on the rise. These are good for the crops and the weeds. We have to grow cover crops to suppress weeds and carbon and lower carbon dioxide concentrations. And we want to choose our cover crops depending on the location and we want to choose a mix of nitrogen fixing And non nitrogen fixing crops from this podcast I was listening to, I think it was cover crop cover crop podcast, or was no-till podcast, those are the names of these things. But they’re you know, these are these are commodity agriculture podcasts. And by commodity agriculture, what I mean is that these are people growing, like wheat for flour and stuff like that, or corn, they’re growing corn, wheat or soy beans, those are the three commodity crops that I’m referring to when I say commodity agriculture.

What these guys were talking about is that they were seeing that there wasn’t, it is the best to have a mix of cover crops and varying up the species, but there really isn’t a difference in species and in benefits to the soil and to the viability and the biological activity of the soil, past like eight different species of things growing. Now a lot of what these commodity agriculture dudes do is also grow all these cover crops as supplemental feed for their cows at the same time, so the cows eat, and then defecate. And then, you know, everything is really active, but they weren’t seeing, you know, so having like a 16 seed cover crop mix, you know, is just going to be spending more money than you need to you just buy twice as much of the eight cover crop seed mix. All right.

Oh, so any, are there any further questions? Oh, wow. Oh, “many of them terminate the cover crop with glyphosate.” Absolutely. And that was something that I didn’t learn until maybe like a year or so ago that I realized that without, you know, without glyphosate without Monsanto, a lot of this very interesting regenerative agriculture, stuff wouldn’t have been possible. But the evolution in technology, especially if the roller crimper really changed the game. And it really made a lot of organic cover cropping and organic no till possible. Prior to that notill was known as a beneficial practice. But it needed the needed glyphosate or another heavy duty pesticide like that. Or another heavy duty herbicide to be able to, to to make it possible.

And yes, Lowe’s shelves are full of Roundup. I remember when we were growing seeds down by Howard University where we were growing, we’re going a plot down by Howard University, in somebody’s backyard. We were talking about all the different things that are there and what we need to be able to do and how we’re going to do this without any chemicals. And then we come outside and somebody else does in the alley is spraying some spraying something with with with Roundup.

Oh, awesome. Awesome. So thank you for thank you for digitally traveling so far. It really is an honor to have you here all the way from Mogadishu.

“seems hot weather has helped with its termination in comparison to cooler temperatures to help decompose the residue. Sometimes you can wait into the late spring, early summer, if you want to plant various types of spring crops. “

Absolutely. Hot weather is going to increase biological activity. Like they say with compost, you need to take it all the way up to like 140 degrees 140 degrees Fahrenheit, or something like that in order for the microbial activity to be absolutely to be working for you. But that’s a whole nother conversation. But yes, you know, the increased temperature always increases activity. We know this, you know the temperature of the universe is I think like three degrees Kelvin, or three Kelvin, sorry, no degrees with Kelvin. But, you know, at zero Kelvin is obviously nothing is going on. But it’s crazy. You know, imagine if things are like five Kelvin? It’ll be crazy.

All right, part two, insect ecology, plant disease and climate change.

So, insects are cold blooded, thus, their behavior is related to temperature. So how will the warmer climate in more extreme temperatures affect the Urban agriculturalists and crop production? definitive answers are elusive. But there is some research that might give general guidelines for what we might expect. As the urban environment warms. One of the first signs of a rapidly warming climate is the number of insect generations in season. The warmer it gets, the faster insects develop and breed as winter cold Keep insects in check. Warming winters may be beneficial to insect survival. Warming winters, for example, are a key factor in the survival and destructive impact of pine bark beetles throughout North America. This is moving their habitat northward. Oh sorry. Also, insects will shift their habitat northward, and there are some indications that plant characteristics can change. The effects of rising carbon dioxide concentrations can have one reducing plant protein can result in greater feeding rates by insects to obtain the necessary protein.

Carbon Dioxide changes could cause changes in leaf thickness, and reduce infestation of leaf sucking insects, although not in every case, also, carbon dioxide could reduce the ability of a plant to produce defensive compounds that keep insects at bay. insect and plant interactions are very complex, you would need a crystal ball to make specific predictions for specific crops, it would be equally foolish to ignore the consequences of those interactions in an era of high carbon dioxide and the very erratic climate that we now have.

But also plant diseases will be on the rise due to an unpredictable climate. Hot and wet conditions which are expected in some areas are the perfect combination for disease development in many crops. For example, mild winters and warm weather are associated with increases in potato blight, powdery mildew, leaf spot disease, leafed rust, leaf rust, and other soil borne root diseases.

Mason is there any good news? Yes, plants might build resistance by defensively closing their their plant pores to disease carrying fungal spores. The rise in carbon dioxide may improve plant water loss by closing some of the plant pores which could moderate leaf moisture evaporation.

We have always relied on mainly three resources for insect and disease management. The first is Rodale’s color Handbook of garden insects. The second is Rodale’s ultimate Encyclopedia of organic gardening. And of course, our imagination. to fully utilize our imagination requires knowing pests, and plant diseases intuitively.

Climate smart crops.

For our 2019 2020 Farmer to Farmer National Institute of Food and Agriculture grant in collaboration with Tuskegee University, we chose to look at specific varietal selections of heat tolerant crops. We looked at leafy green and fruiting crops that were sure to produce under consistent high summer temperatures, the specific crops that were chosen, were also Oh, where well I’ll get I’ll show you why I’ll show you I’ll just show you in the next slide rather than reading them twice. So we of course and then after this, this will give you an ability to find more online. Alright, so the specific crops that we tested were fruiting and vegetable crops, tomatoes, sweet and hot peppers, cucumbers and melons, eggplant, green and lima beans, squash, corn, sweet potato okra, and then for our leafy greens, which we’ve found some specific varieties of lettuce, mustard green Malabar Spinach in New Zealand Spinach and Purslane. excuse me.

So let’s go on tomatoes, we need to look for a heat set varieties. Some tomatoes don’t fruit after the temperature reaches the 90 degree mark. So look for heat set varieties. Sup- like super sweet 100 pictured here is a cherry tomato. Solar set, Surefire Oregon spring, an Oregon star, you know if you want to screenshot this slide in the next couple slides, or if you can wait. There will be later a fact sheet with basically everything that I’ve already said. Separate from the things that I added.

None of these are heirloom tomatoes. These are specifically bred tomatoes, not engineered but bred tomatoes. Some of these like some of these, like some of the ones that we’ll talk about later, were found at various extension places. And so maybe those can be considered but like I think when you’re talking about heirloom you’re talking about in a way that like like Baker Creek seeds might offer or something like that. And some of these, you may be able to find heatset varieties within those But what I would recommend for heirloom crops that you want that are adapted, I would start looking for plants. I would start by looking for looking say somewhere. Yes, I will definitely, I’ll definitely share it let me write let me write your email down. See, this is a, our w ac 103 Yes, a decent amount, I will, I will, I will send I will send that to you. So sorry, what I what I would say Sharon would be to go in Baker Creek, rareseeds.com

This is I’m not sure. Um, I just I just compiled these from and found some pictures. But I guess the supersweet 100 may get as the temperatures approach 100. What I would say if you were looking for heirloom tomatoes would be to look on somewhere where the sites have reviews. And I generally those places that have reviews will also have a location in the review. And so I would look for somebody that is giving a review from say, Arizona, or or lower Arizona, Nevada, Southern California. And if they’re having success, you know, then you you’re more likely to have them especially anywhere on the east coast. Or if you find somebody down in Alabama or some you know, in the deep south, where temperatures are getting really really hot, and there’s still fruiting you want to get. You want to try and find that person and get some of those seeds or find where find out where they bought those seeds.

Many peppers don’t have a heat set gene. Hot peppers are genetically closer to their wild pepper heritage. But some varieties that they tested were cubanelle Gypsy Gator peppers, vidi peppers and sweet banana peppers. This right are the cubanelle peppers. If you’re growing hot peppers, you don’t have to worry about the heat. Even hot peppers love the heat because when it’s when it’s hot and then the soil dries out or whatever they start showing their wilt or whatever, they start producing more than capsaicin compounds and they you know produce a more desirable product, In my opinion.

Corn is thought of as a tasty, traditional summer treat that is perfect to grow in the mid summer heat. But some varieties of corn do not pollinate well when the temperatures surpass the mid 90s. Especially in hot dry areas. The pollen dries out and your fill and you get poorly filled ears of corn watering helps but it’s not the solution.

So some of the varieties are Lancelot and breeders choice pictured I think this is the breeders choice pictured here. The Urban farmer podcast. The guy’s first name is Greg. I forget his last name, but he is in Phoenix or in the Greater Phoenix metropolitan area. And they talk about growing corn and Phoenix. What they do is they get up early in the morning before the temperatures hit the mid 90s they take the tassel which is the pollen producing part of the of the corn and then they’ll rub it on the silk. So if you look here, this is the part of the part of the silk where they would rub the tassel on and the pollen will travel all the way down to silk to each individual kernel and you’ll get a full year corn. They do that with their heirloom corns by the way like the like the glass bead or something like that. They they they have had a lot of success doing that not only in Phoenix but also in places like Denver where where the you know growing growing at that altitude thing changed considerably. Because you know plants aren’t used but they’re having success all over the place by these more manual methods.

Cucumbers and melons. What happens to cucumbers and melons during a very hot and humid summer. The plant produces some fruit, but the heat in the long days causes the plants to farm to many male flowers which do not produce fruit. You need to look for heat tolerant and disease resistant varieties like the mark more 86 cucumber salad, Bush cucumber planners jumbo melon, the pictured Ambrosia Melon and the edisto 47. I want to show you guys something because I’m very proud of this. Hold on

This right here is my big boy, or big girl and doesn’t matter this, the seeds don’t have a gender necessarily, or fruits don’t. But this is a, you know, I was pretty pleased to, to get this, get this because I grew this from a grocery store butternut squash that I bought in 2017. And I planted it, and I got this one and a couple other ones, but this one I’ve been growing, or I’ve been, I haven’t done anything with because I was just sort of too proud. You know, it was just something just like a like a, a trophy for me. And validation of my own practices and beliefs, you know. So next time you get something, you know, when we when we grow these sorts of crops, you know, they they’re grown to be eaten, right? But what happens is that the best crops generally don’t, the genetic material doesn’t survive. Right. Now, I don’t know what’s going on inside of here with regards to the seeds or not. But what I am saying is that whenever you do eat something that is, I mean, just particularly good, you have to be able to save those seeds. Because what what what we’re kind of doing is producing a sort of negative a negative selection at the same time, because we’ll get it tomato, and you’d be like, Oh my gosh, so juicy, so delicious. So, so flavorful, but then the seeds go in the trash, right? And so we don’t, we don’t cultivate that same thing, you know, will produce it will produce a fruit that looks extremely good. But then the rest of the ones that are grown, who knows what the genetic material is, who knows what the nutrient availability is, who knows, but if you get something that looks good, tastes good, feels good. Make sure you save those seeds and keep those things growing. I’m gonna put this back.

Alright, we’re almost done. I know we’re over time a little bit. But um, everybody seems to be enjoying themselves. So we’re just going to keep going on. Like I said, we’re almost done. only like two more slides,

Leafy greens. So I didn’t want to find pictures for all these because some of these the varieties don’t matter. So there are a few nutritious leafy greens that can be grown in the high heat, days of summer. But many varieties of lettuces do not thrive under high temperatures and long sunny days. bolting occurs when lettuce flowers prematurely. That condition is caused mainly by mainly by the long sunlit Days of Summer rather than high temperatures. A little shading of the lettuce helps to remediate remedy that situation. There are a few slow bolt varieties on the market. So you want to you want to look for those swiss chard is a is a is a another one that we can grow.

User was asking earlier about things that we can grow in the fall you swiss chard grows well in hot or cold weather. Just watch out for those oxalates and then Asian mustard greens do very well under high high temperatures. New Zealand spinach and I should have added Malabar spinach also. But just with New Zealand spinach contains a large concentration of high omega threes. However it is an acquired taste but it goes very well in high heat. And Malabar spinach is the same way I’m not sure about its nutrient content. I know that people in India southern India, really eat a lot of it, but it’s kind of slimy a little bit like like okra can be so like, like they said with New Zealand spinach it has it is an acquired taste. And so um lastly here we have amaranth it grows like a weed and is consumed throughout this tropics, especially in the Caribbean, where it’s called callaloo. You can see wild varieties of the amaranth and it’s called pig weed. It goes it gets really tall, and I’m not Oh, maybe hold on. Well, nevermind

I used to last year, we had a lot of amaranth growing in the plot that we had and I let the I let the amaranth grow. I’m 5’11” so it got to be about my height and then I cut it down at the base and then I had to just do the maintenance that you know I’m saying and watch out for offshoots from the stalk. But what I did is that I took that and then cut all of the branches off. And I saved it because now I have a pole for trellising. And I’d used it for propping up my monstera. But the monstera got too heavy and it broke, I’ll show you the monstera. Now, here’s my monstera in the corner. That new leaf here is is brand new. I’m very proud. Anyway. So those are those are the those are the plants that we recommend. And of course, I’ll be sending this out to everybody.

And amaranth like corn and some other plants is a C4 carbon fixating plant. Which means that the hotter the temperature is, the more it’ll grow, which is really good, especially if you’re trying to get leaves off of it. This is there are two main varieties of amaranth that are consumed. There’s a leaf amaranth, and then there’s a grain amaranth. I grew the grain amaranth and consume the seeds, and consumer leaves, but it didn’t produce as much leads as a leaf amaranth would. So I would say that you want to look for the amaranth if you’re interested in growing amaranth you should look for the amaranths that are also called callaloo in that in that way, and they kind of tastes like a sort of gamey spinach if you if if that makes sense because it’s it’s wild.

So other climate smart crops. Here we have the green beans, we have Romano and the McCasian for lima beans see Ava and a Florida butter beans. Almost any variety of okra will grow well and in this in this new normal and we’re describing the time long green egg plant will grow very well. And the varieties, Beauregard and vardaman of the sweet potato will also grow very well. And as we know you can also as I found out last year, you can also eat the greens and the sweet potato they’re supposed to be very nutritious. So if you if you also need some more leafy greens, consider sweet potato greens, they can be grown like enough or they can be eaten like collards. So here are the references.

And to start off the questions, I will I will just answer talk about what Sharon was talking about just now. She said I received pumpkin seedling from a gardener. It was very sweet and produced 30 pumpkins, I saved the seeds but next year seeds wouldn’t grow. Could the genetics have been modified? Yes, sweet potato greens tastes sweet cooks down like spinach. Okay, that’s great. Yeah, I I really look forward to doing that. It’s all good. I will do some odd I will be sending the the presentation out later. So there’s there’s no worries.

So could this seed genetics have been modified? Well, technically, anytime we grow, as we understand, as I understand epigenetics to be the case, anytime that we grow, we are modifying, we’re modifying our genetics whether it’s in our thought or in our agricultural practices, you know, every year the plant is adapting to the every year it is adapting to its current situation. And so

Linda Yannone 1:08:30
genetically modifying based on what everything that happened to it, so it adapts and then produces seed.

MO 1:08:39
Exactly. And so in your, in your, in your case, Sharon You know, when people sell things for seed, you have to have a really high threshold for when you for for selling them, I think it in those thresholds change depending on the crop. And so with your circumstance there, I mean, just like we talked about earlier, there there are there’s a whole list of potential issues that could have happened whether it was planning depth, time, soil moisture, light, soil temperature, nematode populations, you know, something suppressing them, if you had the seed and it looked like it popped, but it but meaning you know, it started germinating and then died. That’s something if it never germinated, that’s something else. Whether or not the seeds were even ready to do so whether or not the seeds didn’t grow, or our act are or ready to grow, you know, just as humans have stillbirths. Something like that could have been the case the the seed itself could have started growing and then and aborted itself. There are many different way reasons why the seeds wouldn’t have grown. But I wouldn’t necessarily say that, um, that that it was because of where you grew them that they didn’t grow that would be that is, um, that to me, the only way I can think about it is that is that’s taking a bridge a step towards a more metaphysical agricultural thing by saying like, Hmm, maybe this pumpkin like grew here, but it didn’t, it didn’t. It didn’t want to grow in the next year, sorry, some germination, but when placed in the soil, it wouldn’t continue their growth. It’s been a couple years now. So I’m just going to continue on with the metaphysical thing, I would then see if that would be the case with other cucurbits. You know, if you’re not having luck with those in that in that same plot, then it just may not be the case. And you might want to rotate some things going on in that place. But it sounds like a Linda has something to say. And maybe may have read that wrong, though.

So, um, yeah, I mean, it’s no,

Linda Yannone 1:11:13
no, yeah, you covered everything, but it’s probably it could have been immature seed, it is all those things you listed.

MO 1:11:21
Okay. Um, so, yeah, I would just try and, and rotate some crops through there that sort of get further away from the Cucurbit family, and then try it again. in a couple years, unfortunately, or do something where you, you can grow some of these you just get, you know, you get a like a big pot, like ones that they have in like restaurants for trees or something like that. And then you you transplant your, your, your squash into there, and immediately set it up for upward trellising, and just, you know, top dress with compost, make some compost tea and feed the mess out of that thing. That’s what I would recommend if you know if you really want to, if you really want to test this, because it because if it is, if it may be an issue of transplantation or something like that, and so you can take some of the soil and test it. In that way I had started, um, I don’t have a picture of it.

unfortunately, I don’t have a picture of it that I can readily find right now. But I started some squash seeds that that squash that I just showed you all I started that in a solo cup. You know, I just cut like, push poke three holes in the bottom, you know, poke three holes in the bottom of it, and put some soil amended with perlite in there. And, and you know, just put the seed, I put a couple seeds in there and I just was like, you know, whatever happens happens. And, and then I think, no, I kept those. I kept that in there for a while. And then I transferred it to in the ground, I think. Yeah, I’ve been I put it in the ground. Um into a prepared bed. But um, I would say and then this year, I you know, I had some or this year earlier this summer.

This was last summer I had some growing in my compost bin. But you know, I you know, I enjoyed the growth. I had tomatoes growing out of their mulberry tree growing out of there, and some squash growing there. But, you know, I didn’t know this until this year, just like just like we experienced. Yeah, I had too many male flowers. I only had male flowers. And it didn’t know that it was I thought that it was some weird mineral thing. Like I wasn’t, I wasn’t providing the plants with everything that they needed to grow. Self-esteem was lowering. I didn’t know that it was just a environmental thing. You know, like we talked about in the very beginning of class. Mother Nature always bats last. And although I really appreciated the sight of the of the of the, of the squash, the compost bin really wasn’t a place for it. And I really I was so anyway, thats that I think I’m I think I’m just rambling because I’m a little bit caffeinated.

User asks, “What can we do with all this rain? What’s ruining many crops that have to be ditched? Just for focus on for growing now?”

Yeah, that’s tough. Um, you know, uh, yeah, because a lot of this is ruined. I mean, the soil is already saturated, saturated. So Many things are being flooded out. And it is kind of attributed to the exact same thing I was talking about last, just just now, where Mother Nature is batting last again. I remember a couple years ago was it last year actually, we had these same into the end of the year into the growing year rains that we’re having right now, we had those in the beginning last year. And I’m, oh, I have a book, I have a book on this, where’s that book, we had those things, and a lot of farmers, a lot of these commodity farmers were getting trounced by this rain. And that is something where crop insurance would come in come into the place. So yeah, I would I would focus on on fall crops, um, you know, and just sort of learning from your experience and seeing what’s really thriving, if anything is at all. And learning from like taking a sort of meta analysis of what you’re learning a higher level analysis, rather,

of what your plots are looking like, and thinking about how you may be able to improve drainage. Where within your plot, does it seem that things may be a little bit higher or lower, just looking at at your plot as a larger ecosystem, and seeing how you can help it in the future. Sharon says nutsedge has been concerned after weeks of heavy rain and wooded areas, but it’s hard to get up the nuts and more will grow. What’s the best way to management, our soil deficiencies allowing its rapid growth? Or is mainly a sign of a wet environment? If I had the answer to this, I would have a lot of money for because nutsedge is a really a problem. It’s in the middle of the country. I there’s a book, I’ll type it in the chat. There’s a book by Rodale, I have a I have a copy. Thank you, Linda, really appreciate you being here. and assisting and and validating and encouraging me and everybody else that was here in the chat.

Linda Yannone 1:17:25
Thank you, you did a great job. Really appreciate looking forward to more.

MO 1:17:30
Yeah. Oh, yeah, I have to answer that question. Because user user asked me that in the future. But I’ll get I’ll get to that later. weeds and why they grow is the name of that book that talks about a lot of that, like that talk that talks about the first part of the answer your question where it says the basically the thesis of the book is you balanced the soil, you’ll balance the weeds, meaning you may have a concentration of too much organic matter. And once you bring down the organic matter, then a certain weed will go away. You may not have enough iron, and so or you may have too much iron and once you sort of balanced the soil, the the wheat populations will go down. I’m trying to Oh, I know where it is. I’ll be right back. I’ll show you.

All right. This is another copy of the same book. It’s called Oh, this is backwards. It’s called weeds control without poisons. I’ll type it in the chat. It’s by Charles Walters and it’s published by anchors USA um, I’m gonna check the index real quick to see if it has anything about nutsedge Alright, see purple nutsedge and yellow nutsedge. Do you is it I’m going to assume that it’s yellow nutsedge because that’s what I’ve seen a lot of is that is that the case either is the little flower thing at the top yellow.

Yeah. There’s very good info on reason I waited bag of the plot for years and then decided to play soil over top of it. The soil seems to be better. Seems to be better when nutsedge wouldn’t grow his yellow flowers. Alright, so I found a thing, but I’m trying to find exactly what they say. And then I’ll just read what they have to say, for the edification of everybody in the class, there are four pages where this is where it’s mentioned. But I would definitely, I mean, absolutely recommend getting this book, I was able to get it through the interlibrary loan. So, you may not be able to get it. But, um, you know, I’m I, but I’ll try and make more of these same concepts available, but I believe the book is like 20-30 bucks, maybe. An enormous value. And sometimes it has really nice sketches of I really liked this plant Datura. It’s very pretty flowers smell like pepper. But it’s, it’s, it was one of those things I was talking about before where it grows, because of the a lot of organic matter in the soil. Okay, so this is

alright, just I think I found, okay, so in this thing, he’s talking about grasses being a problem to row crop producers. So like, and then the very one of the very last ones, he says yellow nutsedge cyperus esculentus. He says, I’m very basically, as Dr. Carey reeminstructed sour grass weeds, such as quiet grass are indicative of calcium deficiencies, qualitatively if not quantitatively. Broadleaf weeds broadleaf weeds are indicative of an improper and phosphate to potash ratio. Using the LaMotte soil testing method, this ratio should be two pounds of phosphate to one pounds of potash for row crops, and four pounds of phosphate to one one pound of potash for alfalfa and grass crops, succulent type plants, such as purslane are indicative of soils, deficient in biologically active carbons.

I don’t know if that was helpful to you. But that is the sort of methodology and stuff that is given within this book, where they’re talking about how to amend the soils after, after you discovered this thing. I’ll look on page 119, again, is the next place where it was mentioned.

So I have it here.

Now, the acres USA catalog, I’m just going to let you know, it depends on how kinda esoteric you like things to be, because their entire publishing house is kind of based on this sort of like, almost a spiritual nature of working with agriculture. I am particularly partial to that sort of thing. But some of the stuff that they talk about is kind of counter to mainstream scientific thought. So I just wanted to let you guys know that once you start reading this thing, and they start talking about Hieronymus Bosch, and Rudolf Steiner, and stuff like that. So yeah, cuz you’re talking about they’re talking about a bunch of different stuff here. So let me go because Oh, so yeah, the next the next thing that they talked about here was using a specific, a specific device that they call in a scientific method they call radionics. And they were measuring the rate with which is sort of talking about its general vitality, hence, its efficacy and predicting projecting negative or dying energy to the same weed in the field. So yes, it’s it’s, it’s a little bit different. And so they have the thing here and then the radionic rate, I don’t know necessarily what what that’s about.

So I’m going to go to the The last place that it’s mentioned and of course if anybody else has any other questions and then we can get to them so the last page that it was mentioned is on page 240. And I think this is the part of the book that I really enjoyed the most, where it goes through each particular species and talks about in a rough sort of scenario, what what they actually are. But 240 Here we go. All right, yellow nutsedge this is what I was looking for. The entire time, found all over the United States and cultivated fields, gardens grainfields richer sandy soils, yellow nutsedge cyperus esculentus is a serious perennial weed. it reproduces by seeds, and weak threadlike stolons. That end by heart tubers, stems at this meter tall symbol and triangular in shape. The pale green leaves i three ranked about as long as the stem with Close, close, oh my god, closed Shiva is mostly at bass, yellow nutsedge produces spikelets point five to three centimeters long, and 1.5 to three millimeters wide, that yellow to golden brown, strongly flattened mostly for ranked along the wide angle radius, blunt tip, the tip acute surround appearance of yellow nutsedge. Here we go. appearance of yellow nutsedge indicates soils seriously out of sorts with very low levels of calcium and phosphate, and very high levels of potassium, and magnesium. I’ll read that again. appearance of nuss nutsedge indicates soils seriously out of sorts with very low levels of calcium and phosphate, and very high levels of potassium and magnesium, iron sulfate, beijer, boron, selenium, salt and aluminum levels are likely to be high soils are likely to have low humaneness and porosity, high moisture, anaerobic bacteria, and poor drainage and residual decay. So in my opinion, that um, Oh, nevermind. Nevermind, I was wrong. So let me know how much that that that worked for you sharing. And of course, I’ve been recording this entire thing. So you’ll be able to get access to to to that particular passage. Later, I’m not sure about like typing it up and giving it out on behalf of the university or something like that. But like I said, it can be found in acres USA. This is the I think this is the second edition of this book. It was published in 1991. And then in a unit ID 96. So

yeah, if nobody else has any questions and have decent mind, I will. I’ll be I’ll be producing everything. I’ll be sort of so like you came into class, like halfway through? I’ve been. Yes. Yeah. It’s extremely intimate. It is an extremely helpful book. This is a picture of the author here. Charles Walters. Oh, wow. Oh, nevermind. Thank you for sharing that. I’ll make sure to include that. I’m gonna, I’m gonna download this. Yeah, a decent, I just gave us a book in the chat. Thank you so much. I’ll be sharing that with everybody else later. But what I’m going to do, like I said is I’m going to take the class, I’m going to take all 544 other recordings, make them into one recording with the additional questions and comments, and then I’ll send that out to everybody. If you’d like to get in touch with me, my email address is here.

I have a podcast that I talked about here. And feel free to check those out. email me anytime with any questions about plants. I’d love to talk about them, as we’ve talked about them for about an hour and a half. Otherwise, I really appreciate you all being here sharing your time with us and sharing your information and expertise and experience on sharing your question. Oh, future topics? That’s an excellent question. I’m going to have to work with che Axum who divined Who Who? Who created this. This sheet. I’m not necessarily sure yet what I’ll be teaching next. But I am very much looking forward to teaching. And, you know, I hope to be able to do something again like this in the wintertime, I know that he was working on a fall planting sheet. And I will be in touch with him. I’m gonna call him as soon as we finish the class. And and I’ll talk about what what we’ll be able to do in the future. Is that cool? And I mean, I have everybody’s emails from from before, I don’t, I mean, I haven’t been able to identify who you are user. But if you’ve, if you haven’t been getting obviously you’ve been getting the emails because you came to class today. But what I’ll do is I’ll let everybody knows through the fat email. You know what I’m teaching next.

Okay, so thank you all and after an hour and a half, I’m going to close class I’ll be in touch with you all on beginning getting all this stuff out. I want to get this stuff out very soon. And, and I really appreciate you all coming to the last class it it really feels good to be able to share this information with you all. So thank you and have an excellent Haven’t you know what I want you guys to have an excellent Friday, because Tomorrow is my birthday. I’m turning 30 tomorrow and and I want you guys to do a really big for me because we won’t be able to obviously do it in person. If you all if you all happen to drink. Drink a little bit of tequila for me is my favorite. But if not, you know just make sure to stay hydrated. Stay healthy because all this stuff is is so crazy. Sharon says also peas and oats can be planted during the springtime. It’s in Johnny’s seed mix. There you go. Thank you, Sharon. And thank you for the Happy birthday. Yes, yes, Abdisamad. I’ll be reaching out to you right after class. Yes, thank you. Thank you for that birthday and thank you used for the Happy birthday. I look forward to to seeing you all again on zoom in the future. So I’m going to stop recording and and i will say peace and thank you